Writer：Anonymous 2020-07-01 14:02:00
1. Ancient heat treatment
Material heat treatment has a long history in China. Compared with other regions of the world, the development of ancient Chinese heat treatment technology has obvious regional characteristics. In some aspects, China's heat treatment technology lags behind other regions, but there are many inventions and technologies in the history of world heat treatment. Being in a leading position, many of these achievements have also spread to all parts of the world, which has directly promoted the progress of heat treatment technology in the world.
The development of my country's material heat treatment technology is similar to other technologies. The traditional heat treatment technology manager has gone from germination, establishment, development, prosperity to weakness, and later is the process of introduction, digestion and development of modern technology. With reference to the stages of ancient China, it can be considered that in ancient times, China's heat treatment has begun to sprout. In the ancient period, China's traditional heat treatment technology began to be initially established; by the Middle Ages, China's traditional heat treatment technology has further developed; in the ancient period, China Traditional heat treatment technology has reached its peak. In the modern era, China's traditional heat treatment technology has gradually weakened, and at the same time, modern technology has begun to establish and develop.
2. Progress in modern heat treatment
Heat treatment is a very important basic process in the machinery industry. It plays an important role in improving the internal quality and service life of electromechanical products and strengthening the competitiveness of products in domestic and foreign markets. But people realized this took quite a long time and a great price. Because heat treatment affects the internal quality of the product, it generally does not change the shape of the product, does not make people intuitively feel its necessity, and if it is not good, it will seriously distort and crack; destroy the surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the product. As a result, the manufacturing process was abandoned. Therefore, the phenomenon of "heavy cold (cold processing) and light heat (hot processing)" has long existed in my country's manufacturing industry, so that this industry has been lagging behind.
Due to the weakness of the industrial foundation and the damage suffered during the war, the heat treatment in my country in the 1940s was still only a workshop-like production, and no substantial industry had yet been formed. There is no special subject of heat treatment in engineering colleges, so there is a lack of high-level professional and technical personnel. The heat treatment operations at that time were mostly family skills, shrouded in a mysterious atmosphere, and were in a very backward position.
my country's heat treatment industry originated from 156 enterprises aided by the Soviet Union in the 1950s. Among them, the machinery factories are equipped with heat treatment workshops and sections. Purchased a large number of Soviet-made heat treatment equipment, including box-type, well-type, salt bath, and other resistance heating furnaces of the 30s and 40s levels, and accordingly established * batches of electric furnace plants that produce these types of equipment according to Soviet drawings. Some colleges and universities of science and technology have created heat treatment majors included in the Department of Mechanical Manufacturing Technology after the adjustment of their departments. From 1954 to 1956, they have trained * batches of professional and undergraduate heat treatment majors. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a group of international students returned from the Soviet Union to study heat treatment. Some scientific research institutions and colleges established one after another can basically carry out the research and development of heat treatment basics and application technologies in accordance with the pace of material and application development, and a series of scientific research results have emerged. As a result, a relatively complete professional system has been initially formed in terms of personnel training, research and development, production technology innovation and equipment manufacturing.
Due to the disconnection of scientific research and production applications, the neglect of innovative production equipment and the short-sightedness caused by the long-term closure of the country, the heat treatment production technology of mechanical and metallurgical factories in the 1960s and 1970s did not show obvious progress. It was not until the 1980s that communication with the international community was realized, advanced technology and equipment were introduced, and the production technology of some large-scale key enterprises has significantly improved.